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Coastal areas offer excellent soil and climate conditions for agriculture. Agricultural products find markets in tourism and handicrafts, while port facilities facilitate trade. However, coastal agriculture faces several challenges due to temporary ocean/sea activities that produce air and saline water and coastal land inundation and erosion.
Negative influences are competition for land, water, capital, labor, and pollution from coastal or external sectors and negative practices of agriculture itself, such as irrigation practices. Agrochemicals and siltation of coral reefs and ports cause pollution for fisheries and marine biodiversity and negative influences on other sectors.
These challenges can be overcome by moderation of ocean and marine activities and comprehensive integrated coastal planning, including agriculture. A participatory approach involving all stakeholders is needed, including changes in cropping patterns and farming methods.
Agriculture accounts for 70 percent of the world's freshwater use: water management is needed in most regions of the world where rainfall is insufficient or variable. In essence, agriculture withdraws water from aquifers and underground sources at an unsustainable rate.
Industry and urban areas put increasing pressure on water resources, which means that water scarcity is increasing and agriculture faces the challenge of producing more food for the world's growing population with reduced water resources.
Climate change has the potential to affect agriculture through changes in temperature, precipitation (timing and amount), CO2, solar radiation, and the interaction of these elements.
Agriculture is one of the most vulnerable sectors to the impacts of climate change; water supply, for example, will be critical to sustain agricultural production and provide the increased food production needed to support the world's growing population.
The underwater farming system could obviate the pesticide issue: the closed ecosystem created within the biosphere is well preserved from pest attack. Not using pesticides means having an ecological environment in close contact with seawater, thus avoiding any disturbance of the marine ecosystem.
Nemo's Garden aims to achieve complete sustainability in the life cycle of growing plants by reusing what the sea naturally gives.
The underwater farm system requires external water only in the start-up phase, while later due to the temperature difference between the air inside the biosphere and the seawater around the structure, the water at the bottom of the biosphere evaporates and condenses easily on the inner surfaces, making it self-sustaining and self-sustaining.
Sunlight enters inside the biospheres by passing through the seawater mass and the polymer film that makes up the dome. It is being studied how much these two filters can affect production and which plant species are suitable to be grown in this configuration.

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